Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy

Pulse Electromagnetic Field Therapy


Following these introductory paragraphs you will find an impartial list of the top 7 PEMF devices based on accumulated ratings for each product. We take a bulk data analysis approach to formulating our review. The most popular comments and concerns are listed as such.

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy is a self-administered, non-invasive treatment option proven to reduce pain, and speed healing in a way that is better then or on par with surgical intervention. PEMF also demonstrates the uncanny ability to provoke stem cell differentiation.

It’s no secret that everything in the body starts out as an electromagnetic impulse carried along the nervous system to every organ, gland or muscle group. Whether you’re walking, talking or unconsciously signalling the release of anti-inflammatory biochemicals, electromagnetism plays a role.

The problem is that a sedentary lifestyle neglects some of the most basic electromagnetic pathways, leading to atrophy of the surrounding neural tissue. Combine this with a bad diet or high doses of electromagnetic pollution and you have a deadly recipe for miscommunication between the heart, brain and body.

Without proper communication it can become a lot more difficult to signal the release of biochemicals for example. PEMF can reduce pain and speed healing by exposing the body to a uniform electromagnetic signal, stimulating surrounding neural tissue, and dilating blood vessels to improve transportation of vital compounds.

Refer to the bibliography at the bottom of this page for hundreds of peer reviewed research articles.


#1. MediCrystal Far Infrared Amethyst Mat 59″L 24″W

Average Rating: 4.7/5

Far Infrared Amethyst Mat Midsize (59"L x 24"W) - Negative Ion - FIR Therapy - Natural Amethyst - FDA Registered Manufacturer - Adjustable Temperature Setting - Hot Crystal Heating Pad - Reddish Brown

395$ Small 59″L 24″W      690$ Medium 32″L 20″W       990$ Large 75″L 39″W

Most popular comments and concerns

  • Helps with many different conditions
  • Particularly pain, auto-immune disorders, and insomnia
  • Great customer service for replacement, warranty
  • Parts sometimes arrive in poor shape
  • Some people found it addictive
  • Hard surface


#2. Far Infrared MediCrystal Agate Gem Pad

Average Rating 4.6/5

Far Infrared Amethyst Mat + Natural Agate Gems - FIR Heat - Negative Ion - Red Light Photon Therapy - 10Hz PEMF Bio Magnetic Pulsation - FDA Registered Manufacturer - Purple (Mini 32"L x 20"W)

449$ Small  32″L x 20″W              849$ Large 59″L 24″W

Most popular comments and concerns

  • Better sleep, pain relief
  • Durable
  • Great customer service
  • Kind of heavy
  • Don’t fall asleep on highest setting, dehydration could result
  • Dial is kind of clumsy



#3. Small UTK Far Infrared Jade & Tourmaline Pad 23.5″L  16″W

Average Rating: 4.4/5 stars

UTK® Far Infrared Natural Jade&Tourmaline Heating Pad Mat for Pain Relief, Small Pro (23.5”X16”) with Smart Controller, Memory Function, Auto Shut Off Timing Setting [US FDA] Travel Bag Included 139$

Most popular comments and concerns

  • Easily Transportable
  • High heat setting travels deeper compared to electric pads
  • Good value for price
  • Controller sometimes stops working
  • Plug for the pad is thick
  • Customer service can be slow


#4. HealthmateForever

Average Rating: 4.4/5

HealthmateForever 15 Modes Digital Pulse Pain Relief Device| TENS CT15AB with 16 Long Life Pads | Back Shoulder Muscle Soreness | Improve Muscle Performance | 4 Outputs FDA Cleared


Most popular comments and concerns

  • Powerful
  • Small
  • Long battery life
  • Instructions are not the greatest
  • The sticky adhesive wears out a little too quickly
  • Pulses can startle those who are unused to it


#5. Eight Modes Portable Pain Relief Electronic Pulse Device

Average Rating: 4.4/5


Most popular comments and concerns

  • Small, powerful and helpful
  • Good customer support
  • Long battery life
  • On/off button can be difficult to reach during use
  • It seems a little flimsy/cheap
  • The snap connections for pads are somewhat insecure


#6. ActiPatch Muscle and Joint Pain Therapy Device 

Average Rating: 4.1/5


Most popular comments and concerns

  • Works for a wide range of conditions: Post operative, arthritis etc
  • Noticeable difference can be seen in 24 hours
  • Pain significantly decreases after two days
  • Bandages don’t stick as well as they should, use tape
  • It is effective, not a cure but a temporary relief.
  • Doesn’t work for a small fraction of people


#8. OSKA Pulse Portable PEMF Device

Average Rating: 3.6/5


Most popular comments and concerns

  • Eligible for Flexible Spending Account or Health Savings Account reimbursement.
  • Improves range of motion
  • Particularly suited for Fibromyalgia
  • Kind of bulky, difficult to move around with
  • Strap needs to either be more secure or offer different sizes
  • Requires a computer to charge




Yin, Y., Chen, P., Yu, Q., Peng, Y., Zhu, Z., & Tian, J. (2018). The Effects of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on the Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research24, 3274.

Zhang, Y., Yan, J., Xu, H., Yang, Y., Li, W., Wu, H., & Liu, C. (2018). Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields promote mesenchymal stem cell migration by increasing intracellular Ca 2+ and activating the FAK/Rho GTPases signaling pathways in vitro. Stem cell research & therapy9(1), 143.

Bagheri, L., Pellati, A., Rizzo, P., Aquila, G., Massari, L., De Mattei, M., & Ongaro, A. (2018). Notch pathway is active during osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by pulsed electromagnetic fields. Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine12(2), 304-315.

Wu, S., Yu, Q., Lai, A., & Tian, J. (2018). Pulsed electromagnetic field induces Ca 2+-dependent osteoblastogenesis in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells through the Wnt-Ca 2+/Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway. Biochemical and biophysical research communications.

Ardeshirylajimi, A., & Khojasteh, A. (2018). Synergism of electrospun nanofibers and pulsed electromagnetic field on osteogenic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Asaio Journal64(2), 253-260.

Elshiwi, A. M., Hamada, H. A., Mosaad, D., Ragab, I. M. A., Koura, G. M., & Alrawaili, S. M. (2018). Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on nonspecific low back pain patients: a randomized controlled trial. Brazilian journal of physical therapy.

Huegel, J., Choi, D. S., Nuss, C. A., Minnig, M. C., Tucker, J. J., Kuntz, A. F., … & Soslowsky, L. J. (2018). Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy at different frequencies and durations on rotator cuff tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery27(3), 553-560.

Huegel, J., Choi, D. S., Nuss, C. A., Minnig, M. C., Tucker, J. J., Kuntz, A. F., … & Soslowsky, L. J. (2018). Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy at different frequencies and durations on rotator cuff tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery27(3), 553-560.

Gorelick, L., & Rozano-Gorelick, A. (2018). Full Recovery of the Patient With Bell’s Palsy Within Two to Six Weeks After Single Course of Pulsed Electromagnetic Therapy-Case Reports. Fortune Journal of Health Sciences1(1), 1-6.

Funk, R. H. (2018). Coupling of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) therapy to molecular grounds of the cell. American journal of translational research, 10(5), 1260.

J Surg Res. 2015 Jan;193(1):504-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2014.08.007. Epub 2014 Aug 9.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields dosing impacts postoperative pain in breast reduction patients.
Taylor EM1, Hardy KL1, Alonso A1, Pilla AA2, Rohde CH3.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014 Jun 24. [Epub ahead of print]
In vitro functional response of human tendon cells to different dosages of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field.
de Girolamo L1, Viganò M, Galliera E, Stanco D, Setti S, Marazzi MG, Thiebat G, Corsi Romanelli MM, Sansone V.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Feb;95(2):345-52. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.09.022. Epub 2013 Oct 15.
Pulsed electromagnetic field and exercises in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Galace de Freitas D1, Marcondes FB1, Monteiro RL1, Rosa SG1, Maria de Moraes Barros Fucs P2, Fukuda TY3.

Efficacy of low frequency pulsed subsensory threshold electrical stimulation vs placebo on pain and physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis. (This review does not include studies giving the body PEMF and joint formula to rebuild the connective tissue…without adequate sulfur or joint formula the body cannot rebuild connective tissue with PEMF’s alone)
Negm A, Lorbergs A, Macintyre NJ.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Sep;21(9):1281-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2013.06.015.

Non-invasive electromagnetic field therapy produces rapid and substantial pain reduction in early knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind pilot study. Nelson FR, Zvirbulis R, Pilla AA.
Rheumatol Int. 2013 Aug;33(8):2169-73. doi: 10.1007/s00296-012-2366-8. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

Targeted therapies using electrical and magnetic neural stimulation for the treatment of chronicpain in spinal cord injury.
Moreno-Duarte I, Morse LR, Alam M, Bikson M, Zafonte R, Fregni F.
Neuroimage. 2013 May 30. doi:pii: S1053-8119(13)00599-5. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.097. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field on knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.
Ryang We S, Koog YH, Jeong KI, Wi H.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 May;52(5):815-24. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes063. Epub 2012 Apr 13. Review

A novel magnetic stimulator increases experimental pain tolerance in healthy volunteers – a double-blind sham-controlled crossover study.
Kortekaas R, van Nierop LE, Baas VG, Konopka KH, Harbers M, van der Hoeven JH, van Wijhe M, Aleman A, Maurits NM.
PLoS One. 2013 Apr 19;8(4):e61926. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061926. Print 2013.

Evaluation of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the management of patients with discogenic lumbar radiculopathy.
Omar AS, Awadalla MA, El-Latif MA.
Int J Rheum Dis. 2012 Oct;15(5):e101-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2012.01745.x.

Exposure to pulsed magnetic fields enhances motor recovery in cats after spinal cord injury. (There was at one time a line of studies done on transected -cut- spinal cords and pemf stimulation on rats and then cats where the PEMF stim unit was run for 8 hours or more per day…all of the PEMF stimulated animals were walking on all fours…the line of studies disappeared from the PubMed database about the time the first analog EarthPulse was finished in 2002 so were never included in the EP bibliography databases)
Crowe MJ, Sun ZP, Battocletti JH, Macias MY, Pintar FA, Maiman DJ.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Dec 15;28(24):2660-6.
Exposure to ELF- magnetic field promotes restoration of sensori-motor functions in adult rats with hemisection of thoracic spinal cord. (10 Hz would have yielded far better results than 50Hz)
Das S, Kumar S, Jain S, Avelev VD, Mathur R.

Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2012 Sep-Oct;46(5):428-35.
Pulsed electromagnetic field during cast immobilization in postmenopausal women with Colles’ fracture.
Lazović M, Kocić M, Dimitrijević L, Stanković I, Spalević M, Cirić T.

Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2012 Sep-Oct;140(9-10):619-24.
Non-invasive stimulation therapies for the treatment of refractory pain.
Nizard J, Lefaucheur JP, Helbert M, de Chauvigny E, Nguyen JP.

J Pain. 2012 May;13(5):411-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2012.02.001. Epub 2012 Apr 7. Review.
Neurostimulation methods in the treatment of chronic pain.
Rokyta R, Fricová J.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Sep 21. doi: 10.1002/bem.20703. [Epub ahead of print]
Therapeutic effects of whole-body devices applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF): A systematic literature review.
Hug K, Röösli M.
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Nov 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on IL-1beta and Post Operative Pain: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study in Breast Reduction Patients.
Rohde C, Chiang A, Adipoju O, Casper D, Pilla AA.
Source 1Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. 2Neurosurgery Laboratory, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY. 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY. 4Department of Orthopedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2009 Apr;29(2):56-61. in this study hundreds of hertz worked; but not healthy for your neuro system!
Evaluation of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field in the management of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.
Graak V, Chaudhary S, Bal BS, Sandhu JS.
Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Aesthet Surg J. 2009 Mar-Apr;29(2):135-43.
Evidence-based use of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in clinical plastic surgery.
Strauch B, Herman C, Dabb R, Ignarro LJ, Pilla AA.
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007 Feb 28; [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on patients’ recovery after arthroscopic surgery: prospective, randomized and double-blind study.
“Sacro Cuore Don Calabria” Hospital, Via don A. Sempreboni 5, 37024, Negrar (Vr), Italy.

Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2007 Jan 2; [Epub ahead of print]  Links
[Are SPA therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy effective for chronic neck pain? Randomised clinical trial First part: clinical evaluation.]
Centre de recherche rhumatologique et thermal, BP 234, 73102 Aix-les-Bains cedex, France.

Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Jan;26(1):69-74. Epub 2006 Apr 22.
Effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in lateral epicondylitis.
Trakya University Medical Faculty Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Edirne, Turkey.

Neurophysiol Clin. 2006 May-Jun;36(3):117-24. Epub 2006 Aug 23.
The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in chronic neuropathic pain.
Lefaucheur JP.
Service de physiologie, explorations fonctionnelles, hôpital Henri-Mondor, Assistance-publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 51, avenue du Marechal-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.

Pain Res Manag. 2006 Summer;11(2):85-90.
Exposure to a specific pulsed low-frequency magnetic field: a double-blind placebo-controlled study of effects on pain ratings in rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients.
Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph’s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2.

J Int Med Res. 2006 Mar-Apr;34(2):160-7.
Efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic therapy for chronic lower back pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Rheumatol Int. 2006 Feb;26(4):320-4.
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of cervical osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial.
Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Education and Research Hospital, Turk ocagi S No: 3 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.

Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2005 Sep-Oct;143(5):544-50.
[Adjuvant treatment of knee osteoarthritis with weak pulsing magnetic fields. Results of a placebo-controlled trial prospective clinical trial]
Fischer G, Pelka RB, Barovic J.
Institut fur Hygiene an der Universitat Graz, Osterreich.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Aug;59(7):388-94.
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on articular hyaline cartilage: review of experimental and clinical studies. Experimental Surgery Department, Research Institute Codivilla-Putti-Rizzoli, Orthopedic Institute, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2004 Mar;18(1):42-6.
Pulsed magnetic field therapy in refractory neuropathic pain secondary to peripheral neuropathy: electrodiagnostic parameters–pilot study.New York Medical College, Briarcliff Manor, New York 10510, USA.

Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jan 2;354(1):30-3.
Analgesic and behavioral effects of a 100 microT specific pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic field on control and morphine treated CF-1 mice.
Shupak NM, Hensel JM, Cross-Mellor SK, Kavaliers M, Prato FS, Thomas AW.
Bioelectromagnetics, Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Joseph’s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, Ont. N6A 4V2, Canada.

Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2003 Oct;33(8):745-52.
The use of pulsed electromagnetic fields with complex modulation in the treatment of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.
Musaev AV, Guseinova SG, Imamverdieva SS.
Science Research Institute of Medical Rehabilitation, Baku, Azerbaidzhan.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;9(4):38-48.
Effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on multiple sclerosis fatigue and quality of life: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial.
Lappin MS, Lawrie FW, Richards TL, Kramer ED.
Energy Medicine Developments, (North America), Inc., Burke, Va., USA.

Percept Mot Skills. 2002 Oct;95(2):592-8.
Increased analgesia to thermal stimuli in rats after brief exposures to complex pulsed 1 microTesla magnetic fields.
Ryczko MC, Persinger MA.
Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada.

Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Aug 30;114(15-16):678-84.
Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee–a double-blind sham-controlled trial.
Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer J, Crevenna R, Bittner C, Erdogmus CB, Nicolakis J.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, AKH Wien, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Peter.nicolakis@akh-wien.ac.at

Neurosci Lett. 2001 Aug 17;309(1):17-20.
A comparison of rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls exposed to a pulsed (200 microT) magnetic field: effects on normal standing balance.
Thomas AW, White KP, Drost DJ, Cook CM, Prato FS.
The Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine & MR, St. Joseph’s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, N6A 4V2, Ontario, Canada. athomas@lri.sjhc.london.on.ca

Curr Med Res Opin. 2001;17(3):190-6.
Magnetic pulse treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pipitone N, Scott DL.
Rheumatology Department, King’s College Hospital (Dulwich), London, UK.

Adv Ther. 2000 Mar-Apr;17(2):57-67.
Spine fusion for discogenic low back pain: outcomes in patients treated with or without pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation.
Marks RA.
Richardson Orthopaedic Surgery, Texas 75080, USA.

Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Feb;26(1):51-62, viii.
Electromagnetic fields and magnets. Investigational treatment for musculoskeletal disorders.
Trock DH.
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Pretraining exposure to physiologically patterned electromagnetic stimulation attenuates fear-conditioned analgesia.
Stewart LS, Persinger MA.
Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

Clin Rheumatol. 1996 Jul;15(4):325-8.
Therapy with pulsed electromagnetic fields in aseptic loosening of total hip protheses: a prospective study.
Konrad K, Sevcic K, Foldes K, Piroska E, Molnar E.
Orszagos Reumatologiai es Fizioterapias Intezet, Budapes, Hungary.

Int J Neurosci. 1995 Apr;81(3-4):215-24.
Resolution of Lhermitte’s sign in multiple sclerosis by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R, Dann LC.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.

J Rheumatol. 1994 Oct;21(10):1903-11.
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and cervical spine. Report of randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials.
Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Markoll R.
Department of Medicine, Danbury Hospital, CT

Eur J Surg Suppl. 1994;(574):83-6.
Electrochemical therapy of pelvic pain: effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on tissue trauma.
Jorgensen WA, Frome BM, Wallach C.
International Pain Research Institute, Los Angeles, California.

J Rheumatol. 1993 Mar;20(3):456-60.
A double-blind trial of the clinical effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in osteoarthritis.
Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Dyer RH Jr, Fielding LP, Miner WK, Markoll R.
Department of Medicine (Rheumatology), Danbury Hospital, CT 06810.

Mil Med. 1993 Feb;158(2):101-4.
Pulsed, non-thermal, high-frequency electromagnetic energy (DIAPULSE) in the treatment of grade I and grade II ankle sprains.
Pennington GM, Danley DL, Sumko MH, Bucknell A, Nelson JH.
Orthopedic Surgery Service, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(6):553-6.
Pain control using high-intensity pulsed magnetic stimulation.
Ellis WV.
Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco.

Panminerva Med. 1992 Oct-Dec;34(4):187-96.
Therapeutic effects of pulsed magnetic fields on joint diseases.
Riva Sanseverino E, Vannini A, Castellacci P.
Universita di Bologna, Italy.

Br J Dermatol. 1992 Aug;127(2):147-54.
A portable pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) device to enhance healing of recalcitrant venous ulcers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Stiller MJ, Pak GH, Shupack JL, Thaler S, Kenny C, Jondreau L.
Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University Medical Center, New York.

Spine. 1992 Jun;17(6 Suppl):S83-5.
Effect of smoking and pulsed electromagnetic fields on intradiscal pH in rabbits.
Hambly MF, Mooney V.
Northern California Spine Center, Sacramento.

Scand J Rehabil Med. 1992;24(1):51-9.
Low energy high frequency pulsed electromagnetic therapy for acute whiplash injuries. A double blind randomized controlled study.
Foley-Nolan D, Moore K, Codd M, Barry C, O’Connor P, Coughlan RJ.
Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Orthopedics. 1990 Apr;13(4):445-51.
Pulsed high frequency (27MHz) electromagnetic therapy for persistent neck pain. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of 20 patients.
Foley-Nolan D, Barry C, Coughlan RJ, O’Connor P, Roden D.
Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Minerva Anestesiol. 1989 Jul-Aug;55(7-8):295-9.
[Pulsed magnetic fields. Observations in 353 patients suffering from chronic pain]
[Article in Italian]
Di Massa A, Misuriello I, Olivieri MC, Rigato M.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1987;8(2):159-64.
Pulsed subcutaneous electrical stimulation in spinal cord injury: preliminary results.
Ellis W.

Lancet. 1984 Mar 31;1(8379):695-8.
Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis. A double-blind controlled assessment.
Binder A, Parr G, Hazleman B, Fitton-Jackson S

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation of Bone Healing and Joint Preservation: Cellular Mechanisms of Skeletal Response

Impact of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on vascular function and blood pressure in hypertensive individuals